myron

The Holy Myron

By the divine power, we have spoken at length on the mysteries of the cross. We next write about the divine and life-giving mystery of the Holy Myron.

CHAPTER 1

Now that discourse on the holy cross, has reached a conclusion, (the discourse) proceeds speedily in order to indicate briefly concerning the holy and divine Myron.

(The word) 'Myron' is translated in the Syriac language as 'muro'. Etymologically (the word) muro – with which the dead are embalmed – signifies mortality. Thus it signifies the mortality of Our Lord for our sake. Solomon also called Him "Oil of Myrrh' (Songs 1:2). The Greeks too call it Myron in the Greek language. In two ways, it is called Myron. First. (because of) the fragrance. Every (kind of) oil composed from many fragrant plants is called Myron. Aromatic herbs are also called Myron.

CHAPTER 2

The discussion investigates from which oils is Myron made? We say from the oil of Balsam or the balm that corn from Egypt and from the olive oil that is found every where.

CHAPTER 3

It is necessary to contemplate on the Balsam oil Josephus the historian says: Jericho is one of the places of the Hebrews which was rich in Palm trees, and as well; other plants, there was also the Balsam plant. When the cut its roots with sharp stones, they collected the gum that oozes out from its roots, because of its fragrance, warmth and sweetness.

Epiphanius, bishop of Cyprus says, when he explains the verse 'the bunch of Cypress flower is my beloved in the garden of Engedi' (Song 1: 14). Engedi is a place in Judea, in which the Balsam is produced, and there are gardens that provide it. When this wood is cut, that is sliced; it gives the gum of Myron.

CHAPTER 4

People may ask: From where has the tradition of the Myron come down to us? We say: From the time of Moses. When God took him up to the mountain and taught him the mysteries of the Church, He also commanded him saying, `Take the finest aromatics: the flower of chosen Myron five hundred shekels, Cinnamon, Cassia and Olive oil etc. and make the oil of anointing, and you shall anoint the tent of the testimony, etc.'(Ex.30:23-26). And this type was handed down till Christ and the old anointing of Moses came to an end, when (Our Lord) handed over the key to Simon on the Mount Tabor. And (thus) the new anointing originated. These things are enough.

CHAPTER 5

People again ask: From where did the apostles learn to consecrate the Myron? Some of the doctors say they have learnt it in the Upper room, when they ate the Passover, and He taught them to perform the memory of His death through  the bread and wine. Similarly, He taught them to consecrate the Myron. This is evident from (the fact) that on the same day Myron is consecrate on an altar and the bread is blessed, as in the Upper room. On a single evening, He taught them to do the memory of His death through the Qurbana and His anointing through the Myron".

Others say that He taught them about the Myron on the Mount Olives, when He ascended to heaven. This is evident from (the fact) that He blessed His disciples and stretched (His hands) over them there. Others say that the Holy Spirit taught the apostles to make the Myron, when He descended upon them in the form of the tongues of fire. This is evident from what the Son had said: 'From what which is mine he takes and informs you' (cfr.Jn. 16:13-15).

CHAPTER 6

The Nestorian (who) oppose the truth as well as the faith asks: Did the apostles consecrate the Myron or not?

We say against them: Show us, where is it written that there was the horn of oil for the apostles? You say that it was raised up amongst you. Again, show us, where is it written that the apostles consecrated the Myron for baptism, and that they anointed the baptized with it, as your elders do, for when one wishes to baptize, he consecrates the oil. If you say that it is not written that the apostles consecrated the Myron, and therefore we do not consecrate (it), then show us, where is it written to adore the cross, to build the churches in the eastward direction, to celebrate the baptism in the church? Therefore (according to this logic) you should not practice these things either.

That the apostles did consecrate the Myron, is evident from what James says in his Epistle:  If anybody is sick, let him call the elders of the Church and let them pray him and anoint him with oil in the name of the Lord, and the prayer with. faith will heal the sick man' (James - 15). And in the Gospel, it is written that they anointed the sick with the oil (Mk.6:13). This oil which is named (here) is the one over which all the elders recite a prayer when they are assembled for the consecration of the Myron. From this oil, and from (the oil) that the Lord blessed and sanctified and gave to His apostles to anoint the sick and possess is evident that the apostles consecrated the Myron.  It is further evident from what Dionysius (the Areopagite) had written at length on it, in the second discourse on its (= the Myron) and its consecration.

Mar Dionysius learnt of the consecration of the Myron from the apostles. Let these things stop here.

CHAPTER 7

People ask: What does the Myron depict? In his letter to John the Roman, Saint Severios said that the Myron signifies the Holy Spirit, the giver of gifts. Others also say that the Myron depicts the Spirit, (basing themselves) on what David says: ' Like the oil that descends upon the head and upon the beard' (Ps.133:2), calling the Holy Spirit 'the oil that descends upon the head', that is upon Christ in (His) baptism.  Other doctors including Moses Bar Kepha say that the Myron indicates Christ, as it is written: 'Your name is Myron poured out '(Songs 1:3). (These things are evident) from composition and its operations, as we are going to show below.

CHAPTER 8

Why is Christ called `Myron'? We say that as the Myron possesses fragrance, the Word also has holiness and fragrance the word also has holiness and fragrance naturally. Whenever the Myron is hidden in a vase and not revealed and not known, it does not give out fragrance. But when it is revealed and seen, it gives out fragrance. Similarly, when God the Word was hidden in His Father, He was concealed and hidden. When He was 'poured out' into the Virgin, it was known that He is the God incarnate".

CHAPTER 9

How many anointing did the incarnate Word receive? We say five. First, when the Word was anointed by the Spirit in the flesh, (that is) by the Holy Spirit, when He was in the womb (of the Virgin). Second, when He anointed His humanity with His divinity. Third, when He was anointed in His body by His mother, as the rest of the children. Fourth, when He received the anointing in His body, that is, the Holy Spirit at the baptism. Fifth, the anointing with the fragrant Myron, when He was anointed by the women.

CHAPTER 10

When Myron is rubbed on the wings of doves, it gives fragrance, and it attracts other doves to this dove. When it is rubbed on the nostrils of impure vultures" they die. Similarly, by the true Myron oil, many live and many others die. The saints who believe in it and are saved, live by it. The wicked who have renounced it, die by it.

CHAPTER 11

Again Christ is called 'Myron' because He received it, when He was anointed by the women. On the fragrance: When the Balsam oil is squeezed and pressed out, it gives out fragrance. Similarly, Christ was pierced with the lance and He gave us pleasant and sweet odor of His divinity.

Again it is called 'Myron', because of the mortality that He received in the flesh for us, according to the indication of the Syriac language, as have said above etc.

CHAPTER 12

Why is the Myron composed from two oils? We say that (it is) because Christ is known from (His) divinity and humanity. The high priest pours the Balsam oil over the olive oil, symbolizing that he had poured the divinity over the humanity. The Balsam oil shows that the divinity is hidden and the olive oil indicates that the humanity is present.

Again Myron is composed from two oils, as the Word is compounded with the flesh. As the Balsam naturally possesses fragrance, the Word naturally possesses holiness. As the olive oil helps those who are anointed with it, the body of the Word confers help and healing to men. As the Myron is of one composed nature, Christ is of one incarnate nature. The oil of Balsam is brought from Egypt, so also God said: 'From Egypt, I called my Son' (Hos 11:1).

Again it is made from two oils in order to show that Emmanuel is composed from divinity and humanity. The Word, being God and con-substantial with the Father and the Spirit, took upon Himself the economy with the flesh. The same one is visible and invisible.

Just as the constitution of the Myron is from oils and substances that are separate and different in essence, yet nobody says after the composition of Myron that there are many oils, but a single Myron, similarly, it is not right to separate Christ, that true Myron, into two natures after the union with the flesh.

CHAPTER 13

We say that the union of the Word with the body took place, not in confusion, in the way in which the oil of Myron is mixed, that is, the oils (mix) with each other. But Christ's (union was) like that fire with iron, and light (with heat?) and fire with wood, so that we do not provide an excuse for those who divide (the natures) (i.e. to attack our position).

CHAPTER 14

Again through the 'fatness' of the olive, we see the holy flesh. The olive plant is abundant in blessings and helps, and it is of advantage to all species (of things) with which it is mixed. Cold plants when compounded with it become cold; when it is mixed with hot ones, it becomes hot. Similarly, the economy of Christ also gave healing to the sick and binding up to the bruised and resurrection to the dead.

(From) the Balsam we understand the eternity of the Word. As this oil that oozes and flows from a stem, is simple and naturally possesses fragrance, the Word, who is from the Father, is simple in His eternal glory. He has no need to enrich His naturally possessed magnificence, from another (source). These things are sufficient.

CHAPTER 15

It has been asked: Why do the bishops (alone) compose the Myron?

We say as an argument that Christ united to Himself with an animated body [and so] the bishop alone compounds it, for one is the Only-Begotten Son who is from the Father. Again, for He alone, and His Holy Spirit, know how He was ‘compounded' with the flesh.

CHAPTER 16

He compounds it secretly in a special place in order to indicate the particular intention of the Father, Son and the Holy Spirit, in which the mystery of the emptying out and the economy of the Word is hidden. Secondly, this place indicates the Virgin Mary, in whom the Word was united with His flesh.

CHAPTER 17

Again the bishop pours the Balsam oil over the olive oil, indicating thus, that the divinity, which is exalted from all things, poured out its essence upon the humanity. The Word empties out Himself into womb of the Virgin without being poured out, yet remaining completely in the bosom of His Father. That is why; He is called 'the Myron emptied out' (Songs 1:3). The fact that He was poured out teaches us this: his blood was poured out and He descended into the womb of the Virgin, without His having departed from His Father.

CHAPTER 18

The bishop is clothed in white, corresponding to the light of his soul, and with the purity of his person, as the mystery indicates to him that it should be offered to God in purity.

Again, having put on white garments, he consecrates it, because it is necessary that he should be illuminated in the contemplation and divine knowledge.

Again (it indicates) that he should be pure from all kinds of sin and perfect in a holy way of life; also so that he should indicate through the white (garments), that the divine gifts which he has received from above are pure and luminous. Again, the bishop is in the place of Christ and as Christ is light as He said ‘I am the light of the world' (Jn 9:5). Thus the bishop wears white (garments) that are luminous. Again he puts on white (garments) because he is the image of the Father, who dwells in unapproachable light. These are enough.

CHAPTER 19

Let us now come to other things. The fact that the bishop leaves the Holy of Holies, and goes around and comes up to the other end of the church, carrying the Myron indicates that the divinity of the Only-Begotten Word who descended and came to us when He became man. As the Word was hidden in the bosom of His Father, so too Myron is hidden in the hands of the bishop and is veiled when he goes around the nave. When he goes out, the bishop is veiled, symbolizing that, even though the Word was revealed and came to us, yet when He became man, His dispensation is concealed from us.

CHAPTER 20

As the Myron is hidden, so too the divinity of the Word is concealed from the angels and created beings do not comprehend it. Again, Myron is veiled, just as the divinity of the Word was veiled in the flesh, when He came to the world. And again it indicates the virtues of the saints that are concealed, as (it is written) : 'Let your left hand do not know, what the right hand does' (Mt. 6:3).

CHAPTER 21

Myron leaves and goes around the nave and returns just as the Word, when He became flesh, He left the heaven, just as the Myron (leaves) the Holy of Holies. And He went around, the world, just as Myron (goes around) the nave. He fulfilled the divine economy and returned to the heaven, from where He descended.

CHAPTER 22

In the middle of the church, it is revealed and consecrated, as the Word, when He became flesh, did realize the salvation in the middle of the earth. As David said: 'In the midst of the church will I give praise' (Ps. 22:22 LXX).

CHAPTER 23

When the Myron leaves the sanctuary, why does the procession move to the north? We say: The eastern region is luminous and the western is dark; northern is high and elevated; southern is deep and low. East and the North indicate the divinity of the Word, and the West and the South, His humanity. For His divinity is luminous like East, and high and elevated like the North. But His humanity, consubstantial to ours, is dark like the West and lowly like the South. Therefore, it leaves from the East and moves to the North, which is high and elevated, for His eternal divinity is pre-existing and His humanity is temporal.

CHAPTER 24

He leaves the sanctuary, that is from the East, as a bridegroom from the bridal chamber, while the (Psalm) of David is sung before him: 'Like a bridegroom comes out of the chamber (Ps 19:5). He cries out from the East: ' Glorify the Lord with a new song and His glory in the assembly of justice... (Ps 149:1). He comes to the North as if to forbid the Accuser who blows from the North. (The following Psalm) is sung before him: ‘I found David my servant. And (with) my oil I have anointed him' (Ps.89:21). And 'the Mount Sion, on the northern border, I have called him'. He comes to the, West teaching (us) to flee from Satan whose light had set, because of his pride. And we say: 'In the middle of the church shall I praise you' (Ps 22:22 LXX) and "Glorify hint who rides to the West, His name is the Lord' (Ps 68:5 Pesh). And he comes to the luminous South, teaching that the Father comes to everyone who is luminous by his virtues, and also the Spirit and they make their habitation with him. They say: `God came from the South and the Holy One from the Mount Pharan' (Dt 33:2), and ' You have anointed my head with the oil' (Ps 23:5), and '0 Lord our God, illuminate us!' (Ps 118:27); and 'Bind our festivals with chains until the horn of the altar' (Ps 11 8:27). When they come to the door of the sanctuary, they say: 'Open to me the doors of justice' (Ps 118:19). This is enough regarding the procession of the divine Myron.

CHAPTER 25

On the Myron and its mysteries - It is necessary that we may continue with the same contemplation (= spiritual sense) and compare the types to the truth. Thus the twelve deacons who surround the Myron represent the twelve legions of the angels. Others say that the deacons represent the Seraphim who surround the Word. Their fans (indicate) the six wings of the Seraphim, who covered their faces with two, that is, from His divinity. With two they (covered) their feet, that is, from His humanity. As someone may say, they do not search out His divinity and investigate about His humanity. And with the middle (wings) they fly (seeing) that they possess an intermediary knowledge about Him, because 'He is the mediator between God and men', as Paul had said (I Tim 2:5).

Again, the fact that the deacons conceal the Myron is the type of the Seraphim who conceal the divinity on the exalted throne, as they cover their faces with two (wings), and with two their feet. Again they indicate that similarly, God the Word, even after His self-emptying for us, was sanctified divinely by the holy Seraphim, with His Father and the Holy Spirit, even though He had become flesh. Similarly, the holy Myron, after its composition in the Holy of Holies, is concealed and sanctified by the twelve wings. Again the fans indicate the holy prophet who came from the twelve tribes and prophesied on Chris obscurely and enigmatically. Again Myron is concealed with fans, indicating that it is not right that the divine mysteries should be revealed to those who are unworthy

CHAPTER 26

Again we say that the twelve priests represent the twelve Apostles.

CHAPTER 27

The twelve censors (indicate) the preaching of the Gospel. Again the twelve censors filled with incense and go before the Myron, indicate for us the twelve apostles through whom the fragrance of the Gospel of Christ was spread.

CHAPTER 28

Again the sweet incense symbolizes the fragrance of faith that is spread in the four quarters.

CHAPTER 29

Again sub-deacons represent the prophets.

CHAPTER 30

The twelve lamps in their hands symbolize the luminous revelations that descend upon them, in accordance with "every good gift and perfect grace" (James 1:17). Again the lamps indicate the light of the divine knowledge that is in the Law and the Prophets. Again the twelve lights symbolize the doctors and interpreters who were like lamps to the Church with their teachings.

CHAPTER 31

The deacons stand nearer to the Myron than the priests who are superior in rank, because the deacons represent the Seraphim who are nearer to Christ, and the priests, the apostles and the sub-deacons, the prophets.

CHAPTER 32

The sub-deacons who are inferior go before the priests, because the prophets preceded the Apostles.

CHAPTER 33

The deacons, priests and the sub-deacons are nearer to the Myron than the people, because the Seraphim, apostles and the prophets are nearer to Christ than the faithful.

CHAPTER 34

The number (twelve, whether) twelve censors, twelve lamps or the twelve fans, indicates the twelve tribes. As the tribes were twelve, the stones (were) twelve, and twelve hours make a day, and (there are) twelve months in a year, and also man is known in twelve parts.

CHAPTER 35

Again, the Myron is slowly carried around in the hands of the high priest and proceeds until (the procession) returns to the sanctuary, and he places the vase on the table. It indicates the course that Christ, followed by His disciples, was traveling little by little in the divine preaching until He arrived at the cross and He was hung on it. Thus the Myron also is placed on the altar. These are enough.

CHAPTER 36

Now it is necessary to open up the true types of Myron, so that the hearer might be filled with the mystical fragrance of the noetic Myron. The hymns with which the Myron is consecrated, indicate the hymns of the Seraphim who cry out: 'Holy, Holy, Holy', and the hymns of the Cherubim who say: 'Blessed is the honor of the Lord from His place' (Ezek 3:12).

CHAPTER 37

The high priest places the vase of the Myron on the altar, because it refers to and represents Christ. The altar (represents) also the wood on which He was crucified.

CHAPTER 38

He signs three crosses over it indicating the Trinity who perfects the mystery.

CHAPTER 39

Why is it consecrated on Thursday? We say: Since `Myron' in the Syriac language indicates death and on this day Our Lord revealed about His death, as (He said): 'One of you will betray me to death' (Mt 26:21). Again because it is close to Friday on which He tasted death. Again, it is consecrated on this day, because He was anointed three times and on this day, He received the last anointing. As say Mathew and Mark: 'Two days before the Passover...' ( Mt 26:1; Mk 14:1). Between our Passover, that is Sunday, and the day, in which He was anointed, there are two days: (that is) Friday and Saturday. This interpretation has been given by Moses Bar Kepha. But we say: 'Two days before the Passover' (means that) it is on Tuesday that He was anointed. He calls 'Passover' the one of the Jews, and not our Sunday.

It is consecrated on Thursday because on (that day) Christ raised His hands over His disciples and made them bishops. It is therefore meet that Myron should be consecrated on the day in which the priesthood was given.

It is consecrated on Thursday because it should consecrate the five senses of the body and the soul, because it is also sanctification for the five senses. It sanctifies and gladdens the eyes with light and beautiful vision; the ears with sound filled with melodies and lovely songs; the nostril with the sweet odor of the incense; the mouth with praises and chants and the hands with the sensation befitting God. . In his epistle to John, Jacob of Edessa has said: Saint Dionysius, who spoke spiritually of the service of the Myron, had not handed down in writing why it is consecrated on the Thursday of the Mysteries. The rest of the doctors also have not informed us on it. Is it lawful to consecrate on other days or not, when it becomes necessary to perform it? But I know, in our days, a bishop had happened to be in a city of the pagans. He lodged with a certain Christian who was a deacon. When he was compelled to make this man priest, he did not have an altar, that is the tablet with him, nor had he the Myron, in order to anoint an altar with it and to offer the sacrifice of the body and the blood and after that, to ordain that man; being compelled in one night, to consecrate Myron, and to anoint the altar, and to offer the sacrifice of the body and blood upon it and to make that deacon priest. He performed these things without violating the canons of the Church and those for consecrating Myron (on a day) other than the Thursday of the mysteries. But he did it because of necessity. It has been prescribed that it be consecrated on the Thursday of the mysteries, so that it should be nearer to the passion of Christ. As He said about the woman who poured the oil over His head, "she did it for my burial" (Mk 14:9; Mt 26:12). Therefore, they have ordered that it be consecrated on Thursday, so that it should be prepared for those who are to be baptized in that noble night and on the feast of resurrection. These are enough.

CHAPTER 40

On the mystery of Myron: It is advantageous for us to add on the same subject. People ask us: Why is Myron consecrated on day? We say, because it is a mystery dressed with light.

CHAPTER 41

It is consecrated at the third hour, for it indicates Christ, who (Himself) indicates the Trinity: Father who anoints, and the Son who is anointed and the Spirit who fulfills the role of oil.

. CHAPTER 42

The bishop alone consecrates it, so that he may have some proper function other than that of the priests. Therefore he consecrates altars, 'that is, tablets, and performs ordinations.

CHAPTER 43

Again the high priest consecrates it because it is the sanctifying principle of all the ecclesiastical affairs. And therefore the bishop alone consecrates the Myron.

CHAPTER 44

After the consecration, he ascends to the Bema as Christ ascended to the Mount Olives with His twelve apostles and then to His Father.

CHAPTER 45

It is not right for him to remain in the same manner of life, but to advance from (his) first manner of life to another more excellent one.

CHAPTER 46

Thirdly, just as he is exalted in his being, so he should be exalted in his knowledge and manner of life above from the priests, deacons and the whole people.

CHAPTER 47

Again, in order to show the Myron to the people, just as Our Lord was suspended on the cross, in the sight of all the creation (and) He was seen.

CHAPTER 48

By extolling it, he indicates (the following). When Emmanuel was raised on the cross and extended, He received the anointing of the Spirit, not that He had not yet received the Spirit, for Jesus has not (yet) been glorified.

CHAPTER 49

In the same way as Christ blessed His apostles, when He ascended to heaven, (the bishop) blesses the people when he ascends on the Bema.

CHAPTER 50

He extols it towards the four quarters, because Christ had commanded that His Gospel should be transmitted to the four quarters. Also man is composed of four elements. The twelve hours of the day have been divided into four watches, each of three (hours).

The Sun is directed by four winds. The yearly cycle has been divided into four. Therefore it is extolled towards the four sides, so as to sanctify the entire world. And to each side, three crosses are made with the vase in its being extolled, for the name of Christ indicates the Trinity: the Father who anoints the Son who is anointed and the Spirit who fulfills the role of the oil. Whenever we sign the cross, we indicate the Trinity. Through Him, who was crucified, we understand the Trinity. The hymn of the bishop, as he extols the Myron (is) Kyrie eleison : five times, (which means) 'Lord have mercy upon us!'. These are enough.

CHAPTER 51

In the course of contemplation, we proceed and arrive at other things. When the Myron descends from the Bema, it is placed on the altar, indicating that the Word, even after He had ascended to heaven, dwells always on the holy altars. It is not left in the vases' in which it was consecrated, but poured into another, because the vase in which it was consecrated   represent the flesh that was united to the Word. The one into which it is poured, typifies our flesh, for through baptism we receive it (= myron). Again the Myron is hidden in the Holy of Holies and is not left revealed like the crosses and (the similar) orders in the church, for the mystery of the economy of the Word –whom it typifies-is hidden. His judgments are inscrutable, being a great depth, and therefore it is not lawful to show the mysteries openly.

CHAPTER 52

It is given by the order and permission of the bishop, because the bishop occupies the place of Christ19. It is not lawful to be given without (his) permission, for he holds the keys of the kingdom. Again, so that they should show obedience to him, as Christ was obedient to the Father, and the apostles to Christ. It shall not be given to the heretics and the pagans, in the way that the blessings or the bones of the martyrs are given, because it confers its graces (only) to the souls of the faithful. The souls of the non-believers are injured by its proximity.

CHAPTER 53

Again it is consecrated by the bishop and it consecrates the baptismal (water), the tablets, the baptized (as well as) the churches. Thus the Myron represents Christ Himself, who sanctifies and is sanctified. He sanctifies all, as He is God. He is sanctified as He became man.

Saint John (Chrysostom), in the twentieth homily of the commentary on the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, says: While referring to the poor, he refers to this sanctuary that is the altar, of whom the members of Christ are composed. This altar is not from the old one, but from the present awesome one. This is of stone by nature. But it becomes holy because it receives the body and blood of Christ. But that one, since it is the body of Christ, is more awesome than the one near which you stand. You honor this altar, because it receives the body of Christ, while the one that is the same body of Christ, you dishonor and abhor, when you disregard (it).

But people ask, if Myron, Qurbana and the altar represent Christ, which is the most worthy among them and bear the sign of excellence? Some of the doctors say that it is myron, as it is evident from its etymology, Myron having its origin from the divinity, indicating a time of eternity, for the Word took this name even before He became flesh : 'Your name is the myron poured out' (Songs 1:3)

Qurbana and the altar were named during the time of the dispensation and the person of humanity. For until He was united with the flesh60 and offered Himself to the Father on the cross, (as) 'an acceptable offering ( qurbana) in the evening' (cfr.Ps 141:2), that is in the end of the time, He was not called Qurbana.

And He is named altar because our prayers are offered to God, 'on Him'. Moses Bar Kepha, bishop of Mosul says otherwise: Myron, Qurbana, altar or bishop, one is not more valuable than the other, because all four indicate Christ and occupy the place of Christ. Christ is the Myron. As Paul had said, 'In the end of the world, He offered Himself once (for all) through his sacrifice' (Heb 9:26). He is the altar, as 'an altar, not built by hands'. He is the high priest, as 'We have the high priest of our confession' (Heb 3:1).

They indicate Christ not in a single way, but in several ways. The Myron indicates the union and the Qurbana the offering for us, the altar Him who became sacrifice on the wood for us. (He is) high priest, because He offered Himself to the Father for us and they sanctify and perfect mutually, and are sanctified and perfected by others.

Myron is consecrated so that things might be anointed with it, and so that churches as well as baptismal water might be consecrated, the baptized might be signed with it, and (so) be distinguished from the non-baptized. (It is consecrated) in order to confer adoption as sons and the garment of life to those who wear it, to anoint our spiritual head, to gladden our faces that were blackened with sins, to help the spiritual athletes and to give virtue to those who have entered the world and good company to those who are sent off.

Qurbana is offered in order to confer us remission of sins, while making us His members, and (to enable us) to acquire divine energies, such that fire gives to iron, when joined with it.

Why is Myron consecrated once a year? We say, because baptism is one, not many; Christ suffered once; each of the festivals is celebrated once a year and the sheep have one sign.

Why is Qurbana celebrated every day? We say, because the sheep receive nourishment daily, and since we sin many times a year, the Qurbana is offered, so that he who receives it might be absolved by it every time.

What do we obtain from Myron and from the Qurbana? We say that we meditate with the eyes of the soul on God the Word, who unites Himself with the bread and wine and the oil. He is the Qurbana; He is the Myron, and the Word of Life to those who are saved, and death to those who perish.

The operations of the Myron precede the Qurbana for without Myron, the church is not consecrated, nor the altar, nor the baptism, the Qurbana nor the priest and these are the fundamental operations. The operations of the Qurbana are the final and complete, because the church that is consecrated with Myron, if Qurbana is not offered in it, is not completed. Therefore these (do not operate) without the others.

This discourse may take completion here.

End of (the discourse) on the divine and life giving Myron